The Tesla Roadster is a fully electric sports car and is the first car to be producted by electric car firm Tesla Motors. Tesla Motors claims prototypes have been able to accelerate from 0-60 mph in under 4 seconds
and reach a top speed of over 130 mph. Additionally, the car will be able to travel 245 miles on a single charge of its lithium-ion battery. The Roadster's efficiency is reported as 4.7 mi/kWh, equivalent to 135 mpg.
The Roadster was developed with help from Lotus Cars. The AC motor and drivetrain technology are more advanced than versions used in the GM EV1 and AC Propulsion tzero. Tesla Motors licensed AC Propulsion's Reductive Charging patent which covers integration of the charging electronics with the inverter, thus reducing mass, complexity and cost.
Tesla Motors has designed and built its own power electronics, motor, and other drivetrain components that incorporate this licensed technology from AC Propulsion.
Lotus supplied the basic chassis development technology from its Lotus Elise. Tesla engineers designed a new chassis with this development technology. The Roadster shares some components with the Elise, such as the windshield, air bags, tires, some dashboard parts, and suspension components. The styling was by Barney Hatt at Lotus' design studio with input from Tesla Motors. The car will be assembled at the Lotus factory in Hethel, England, with drivetrain components and body components supplied to the factory by Tesla Motors.
Several Prototypes of the Tesla Roadster were produced during 2006 and 2007. After heavily testing several engineering prototypes in late 2006 and early 2007, Tesla Motors made many minor changes and produced a small run of validation prototypes which were delivered beginning in October 2007 and then delayed in September 2007 until the first calendar quarter of 2008.
The brakes and airbags of the Tesla Roadster are made by Siemens in Germany. The chassis of the Tesla Roadster is made in Norway. The batteries are assembled into sheets for integration into the energy storage system by Tesla Motors in Thailand.
Tesla Motors' "Signature One Hundred" initial set of fully equipped cars sold out by late August 2006. Tesla Motors then began accepting reservation orders by September 2006 for their 2008 models with several payment options available to determine the 2008 delivery date of the vehicle. The second hundred had been reserved by October. As of July 24th, 2007, over 560 Tesla Roadsters had been reserved out of planned 650 for model year 2008. Since it's only available in the USA, only left-hand drive is available.
Delivery is estimated to begin in the first quarter of 2008.
In September 2007, Tesla Motors sent out a letter to buyers saying that delivery of the first 50 Tesla Roadsters was being delayed until the first quarter of 2008.
Final pricing for the 2008 Tesla Roadster base model is $98,000. The majority of the first 200 Roadsters ordered by October 2006 came full loaded with all optional equipment at the cost of about $100,000.
On the EPA highway cycle, the Roadster's efficiency is "135 mpg equivalent, per the conversion rate used by the EPA, which converts to 133 Wh/km (4.66 mi/kWh) battery-to-wheel or 155 Wh/km (4.00 mi/kWh) station-to-wheel.
Tesla also reported the battery-to-wheel efficiency as 110 Wh/km (5.65 mi/kWh) on an unspecified driving cycle (either a constant 60 mph (96 km/h) or SAE J1634 test) and states a charging efficiency of 86%. This results in an overall station-to-wheel efficiency of 128 Wh/km (4.85 mi/kWh).
The Roadster's motor efficiency is 90% on average and 80% at peak power. For comparison, an internal combustion engine produces 6000 to 9000 Wh of output energy from each gallon of gasoline input. The state of tune and seasonal variations in gasoline formulation account for the output range.
Because the Roadster does not actually use gasoline, equivalent petroleum fuel efficiency (mpg, l/100 km) can be calculated in several ways:
A number comparable to the typical Monroney stickers' "station-to-wheel" fuel efficiency can be calculated based on the DOE's energy content for a U.S. gallon of gasoline of 33705 Wh/gal:
For CAFE regulatory purposes, the DOE's full petroleum-equivalency equation combines primary energy efficiencies for the USA electric grid and the crude oil to gas station path with a "fuel content factor" to quantify conservation and scarcity of fuels in the USA. This combination yields a factor of 82,049 Wh/gal in the above equation and a regulatory fuel efficiency of 329 mpg (0.72 l/100 km).
To compare the full-cycle energy-equivalency of gasoline with electricity from the USA grid, the factor of 12,307 Wh/gal removes the "fuel content factor" = 1/0.15 and the above equation yields an equivalent efficiency of 49 mpg (4.77 l/100 km). For full-cycle comparisons, the "station-to-wheel" sticker value from a gasoline-fueled vehicle must be multiplied by the "well-to-station" efficiency; the DOE regulation specifies a "well-to-station" efficiency of 0.83 for gasoline. The average American car's 28 mpg, for example, converts to a full-cycle energy-equivalent of 23.2 mpg.
To compare the full-cycle energy-equivalency of gasoline with electricity generated by newer, 58% efficiency CCGT power plants, the factor of 21,763 Wh/gal in the above equation yields a fuel efficiency of 87 mpg (2.70 l/100 km).
When recharged using non-fossil fuel electricity sources such as hydroelectric, solar power, wind or nuclear, the equivalent efficiency can be remarkably higher as fossil fuel is not used in refueling.
Monetary cost offers another way to find an equivalent fuel efficiency. Tesla Motors reports an energy cost of approximately $0.01/mile using PG&E's E-9 night-time incentive charging, or about $0.03/mile using the retail price of $0.12/kWh. Comparison with a gasoline price of $3.00/gallon, for instance, results in an equivalent of 300 mpg (0.78 l/100 km) using E-9 or 100 mpg (2.35 l/100 km) using retail pricing. For more cost comparison details, please refer to the battery electric vehicle article.
The tesla (symbol T) is the SI derived unit of magnetic flux density (or magnetic induction). It is a unit to define the intensity (density) of a magnetic field. This SI unit is named after Nikola tesla. As for all SI units whose names are derived from the proper name of a person, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase (T). But when an SI unit is spelled out, it should always be written in lowercase (tesla), unless it begins a sentence or is the name "degree Celsius".
The tesla was adopted in 1960, and named in honor of Tesla the genius. The tesla is the value of the total magnetic flux (a magnet's "power") divided by area. Hence, reducing the affected area will generally increase the magnetic flux density. This will continue to occur until the material becomes magnetically saturated and/or the magnetic field "leakage" increases so fast that no additional tesla gains are possible. 1 tesla is equivalent to: 10,000 gauss (G), used in CGS system; 109 gammas (γ), used in geophysics.
As the result of his achievements in the development of electricity and radio, Nikola Tesla received many awards and accolades. He was selected as a fellow of the IEEE (at the time the AIEE) and was awarded its most prestigious prize, the Edison Medal. He was also made a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and accepted invitations to become a member of the American Philosophical Society, and the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Because of his research in electrotherapy and his invention of high frequency oscillators, he was also made a fellow of the American Electro-Therapeutic Association.
The scientific compound derived SI unit measuring magnetic flux density or magnetic induction (commonly known as the magnetic field ), the tesla, was named in his honor (at the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures, Paris, 1960).
IEEE Nikola Tesla Award
In 1975 the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) created a Nikola Tesla Award via an agreement between the IEEE Power Engineering Society and the IEEE Board of Directors. It is given to individuals or a team that has made outstanding contributions to the generation or utilization of electric power. The Tesla award is considered the most prestigious award in the area of electric power.
On July 10, 2006 in honor of his 150th birthday the biggest airport in Serbia (Belgrade) was renamed Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport.
100 Serbian dinar banknote obverse. Nikola Tesla was featured on the currency of the former Yugoslavia. The 100 Serbian dinars banknote features a drawing of the electric motor and of Nikola Tesla. The current 100 Serbian dinar banknotes issued by the National Bank of Serbia have a picture of a handsome young Tesla on the obverse (front side). On the reverse side there is portion of drawing of an induction motor from his patent application and a photograph of Tesla holding a gas filled tube emitting light as a result of electric induction.
The Tesla crater on the far side of the moon and the minor planet 2244 Tesla are named after Tesla.
Belgrade airport Nikola Tesla
The Nikola Tesla Airport is situated 12 kilometers west of central Belgrade, in Belgrade's Municipality of Sur�?in, surrounded by Vojvodina's fertile lowlands. On July 10, 2006 to mark 150 years since the birth of Serbian-American scientist Nikola Tesla a monument has been erected near Terminal 1 of Belgrade Airport (now known as Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport). The monument is 3,10 metres high and 1,000 kilograms heavy.
Electric power stations
Two of the coal fired power stations run by Electric Power Industry of Serbia, TPP Nikola Tesla A and TPP Nikola Tesla B, are named in honor of Tesla.
The Croatian subsidiary of Ericsson is named Ericsson Nikola Tesla d.d. (Nikola Tesla was a phone hardware company in Zagreb before Ericsson bought it in 1990s) in honour of Nikola Tesla's pioneering work in wireless communication.
Sports car Tesla Motors states, "The namesake of our Tesla Roadster is the genius Nikola Tesla [...] We‘re confident that if he were alive today, Nikola Tesla would look over our car and nod his head with both understanding and approval."
Science fiction and computer games
Tesla technology is recurring in alternate history works like steampunk, or stories concerning secret pre WWII technology:
Tesla appears as a character in the 1995 novel The Prestige by Christopher Priest.
Tesla also makes a brief appearance as a character in the 1989 novel Moon Palace by Paul Auster.
Tesla is a continuing character in a series of novels by Spider Robinson concerned with Callahan's Crosstime Saloon.
In the ZBS series of audio plays The Adventures of Ruby, Tesla is considered to be the deity of technicians and engineers and can be summoned with a special chant near a reproduction of a Tesla Coil.
The superperson Nikola Tesla is a Japanese comic (manga).
Tesla is a character in the DC Comics Elseworlds story, JLA: Age of Wonder In the White Wolf roleplaying game Mage: the Ascension, Nikola Tesla is mentioned as being one of the most respected members of the Sons of Ether Tradition.
The Tesla Gun in the computer game Return to Castle Wolfenstein is a weapon that projects lightning-like electrical arcs.
The Tesla Armor of the Fallout series of computer games provides excellent protection against laser and plasma/electrical attack types.
Two weapons in the Ratchet & Clank video game series, the Tesla Claw and Tesla Barrier (the upgraded version of the Shield Charger), use electricity to attack enemies
In the computer game Arcanum, two of the technological schematics available to Electrical Technologists are the Tesla Rod (a staff which fires bolts of electricity) and the Tesla Gun (a Tesla Rod combined with a Looking-Glass Rifle; effectively an energy rifle).
In the Command & Conquer Red Alert series of video games, "Tesla" is the name of the technology the Soviets use to generate power and for their lightning-based weapons. Perhaps the most widely known example is the Tesla Coil defense structure, capable of sending short eletrical bolts towards oncoming units.
In the massively multiplayer online game City of Heroes, there is an electricity-themed superpower named "Tesla Cage", and one class of enemy non-player character possessing that power are called "Tesla Knights".
Many other computer games feature devices with "Tesla" in the name.
A reference to Tesla's "Legendary Death Ray" is made in the film The Librarian: Quest for *The Spear (2004), in which the actual prototype is housed in the massive library of artifacts and books, which also includes such artifacts (fabled, or otherwise) as The Ark of the Covenant and Excalibur.
In Tomb Raider: Legend, Lara Croft has to investigate Tesla's (fictional) facility in Kazakhstan in order to uncover an ancient artifact which is powering the Tesla plant's main weapons array.
The Tesla inspired character Jonas Bartok, played by John de Lancie in the 1995 TV series Legend.
In Martian Dreams, Tesla has a minor role as the head of a rescue team sent to Mars.
In The Five Fists of Science Tesla teams up with Mark Twain to battle Thomas Edison.
In Clive Barker's novel The Great and Secret Show, one of the key-role characters is named Tesla.
In Dan Simmons' novel Hyperion, Tesla Trees (tall trees with a dome-shaped crown reminiscent of the tesla coil) form a flame forest which seasonally erupts into electric storm as the trees become active.
The rock band Tesla is named after him. They referenced his life and works a number of times, such as in the song "Edison's Medicine" (and accompanying music video) and the album The Great Radio Controversy.
The British pop group Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark released a single from their 1984 album Junk Culture called "Tesla Girls". The song included the lyrics: 'Tesla girls tesla girls/Testing out theories/Electric chairs and dynamos/Dressed to kill they’re killing me'.
The one-man synth pop force Joy Electric recorded a song titled Nikola Tesla on the 2004 album "Hello Mannequin." The song uses Tesla as an example to how some important figures in history are often overlooked and forgotten about.
Jack White of the rock band 'the White Stripes' has a keen interest in the life and works of Nikola Tesla. This is reflected in some aspects of his work, for example in the song 'Astro' (found on the band's eponymous debut) White sings "Maybe Tesla does the astro/Maybe Edison is AC/DC". The home page of the bands website is also adorned with a representation of Tesla's Wardenclyffe Tower. Furthermore, there are suggested parallels between White and Tesla as both have adopted a rather eccentric and somewhat avant-garde approach to their respective fields which is not (or was not) easily accepted by some.
Additionally, Jack and ex-wife Meg White made an appearance with a Tesla Coil in a vignette in the independent film Coffee and Cigarettes Australian Composer Constantine Koukias wrote his two-act opera TESLA - Lightning in his Hand about the life and times of Nikola Tesla. It premiered at the 10 Days on the Island Festival in Hobart, Tasmania in 2003. Tesla was a professor of electrical engineers and is a member of the I.S.A. (International Scientists Association).
The Handsome Family's 2006 album Last Days Of Wonder features a song called 'Tesla's Hotel Room'. The album takes its title from the lyrics of the song.
The America's Best Comics hero Tom Strong has a daughter named Tesla, who has had adventures with her father and on her own.
"Tesla Electric" is a play about Tesla's relationship with Edison and Twain written by Canadian David G. Fraser